Working in field. Illustration: Ratns Sagar Shrestha

According to the International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI), the global hunger index of Nepal in the year 2015 was 22.2 indicating a serious problem of food security. Additionally, majority of the farmers in the country have less knowledge on the suitability of different production methods under the climate change scenarios across a wide array of ecological as well as socio-economic contexts. Hence, the production of major food crops is likely to reduce in the days to come.

Various studies suggest that improving farmers’ standard of living is the most effective way to adapt to climate-related threats and shocks. For example, a study conducted among food insecure and food secure farmers in Kenya showed that poorer farmers were not investing in improved farm management practices, because they were entirely focused on activities that contribute to their household food supply. Food secure farmers, however, discussed goals related to children’s education, purchasing lands, and other long-term investments.

Agricultural production systems therefore need to tailor in the direction of higher productivity and production stability in the face of climate risk. This is possible when production systems are more resilient, robust, and highly efficient in utilizing locally available resources and inputs. Here are some systems to address the challenges


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